STDs & INFERTILITY

Having a child is one of the happiest feelings of life. But we are afraid the alarming rates of Sexually transmitted infections have considerably increased infertility cases in both men and women. Sexually transmitted diseases are no havocs and can be treated and cured with timely medications. If not, many STDs can develop infertility conditions in humans. 

In women, the release of the egg by ovaries, known as ovulation, causes infertility. PCOS, blocked fallopian tubes, primary ovarian insufficiency, and multiple uterus problems can lead to infertility. In men, various conditions including, Varicocele, reduction in sperm count, improper movement of sperm, and numerous hormone disorders, can cause infertility. 

STDs majorly affect the genitals in both men and women and become significant instances of infertility in both. Untreated and asymptomatic STDs can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), which is a leading cause of preventable fertility. Pelvic inflammation causes scarring on women’s fallopian tubes, which makes it difficult for the sperm to reach an egg. This situation can also result in ectopic pregnancy. 

In the case of men, untreated or prolonged STD can affect the male reproductive tract structure that includes the urethra and epididymis. This thereby reduces the semen quality in men. HIV also causes immunodeficiency in men that makes it harder for the male to make his spouse pregnant. Therefore, while comparing sexually transmitted diseases in men and women, men are more likely to get treated faster than women as their symptoms are observed at an early stage. 

HOW TO DIAGNOSE INFERTILITY? 

Continuous involvement in unprotected sex for over 6months without getting pregnant is a clear indication of infertility in men, women, or both. In such conditions, the doctor’s consultation and laboratory tests are essential. In the laboratory, a Hysterosalpingogram image is used to diagnosing infertility. Hysterosalpingogram is an image of the uterus and fallopian tubes taken by injecting dye through the cervix. If the dye is unable to enter, neither can sperm and egg enter the tract. This detects the blocked parts of the female reproductive tract that are blocked due to scarring. 

WHICH STD CAN CAUSE INFERTILITY? 

The technological advancement in the medical sector has provided better opportunities for humans to live a healthy life. Our scientists have invented the treatment for almost all human diseases in today’s time, and Sexually transmitted infections are no exception to it. If treated at an initial stage, STDs can easily be cured, and the patient can continue an everyday sex life. Not all the STDs initially cause infertility in humans; rather, it is a careless approach of prolonged deteriorated health. Some major Sexually transmitted diseases that are at a higher chance of causing infertility in men and women are: 

1. CHLAMYDIA 

Chlamydia infects most of the population per year, and the infection rate is increasing at a high pace. The majority of the cases depict untreated Chlamydia leading to infertility in women, the primary reason being the asymptomatic Chlamydia in women. When not treated at the early stage, it causes severe swelling in fallopian tubes that blocks the way for eggs to travel to the uterus. This infertility caused due to scarring in fallopian tubes is in medical terms known as Tubal Infertility. 

2. GONORRHEA 

Gonorrhea is the second most common sexually transmitted infection in both men and women. Unlike Chlamydia it can cause the condition of infertility equally severe in both men and women. Gonorrhea if goes undetected and untreated for long causes following health hazards in the body. 

  • In women

A medical report states that around 20% of women infected with Gonorrhea experience the symptoms of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, which causes infertility in women. This disease also attacks the fallopian tube in women, not allowing the sperm to reach the egg, making it difficult for them to get pregnant. 

  • In Men 

Gonorrhea in men affects their sperm count, making it difficult for them to make their spouse pregnant. That is why it is always advised to all sexually active people to get tested for STDs at regular intervals. 

3. Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV)

Both men and women are suffering from HIV- AIDS experience multiple biological changes in their bodies. These biological changes attack their reproductive organs giving rise to the condition of infertility. HIV affects the sperm count in men. HIV infected women who can conceive a child after continuous efforts and medications may have to deal with some severe complications during pregnancy and childbirth. With the development of medical science, there are now multiple reproductive methods used in cases of positive HIV to experience safer delivery. HIV doesn’t force you to give up on your dream of becoming a mother and father but expects you to take necessary precautions and follow the doctor’s instructions. 

4. HERPES 

Herpes being a prevalent sexually transmitted disease has not presented many cases of infertility in women. However, some instances prove that Herpes is capable of causing infertility in men. The scientific research has confirmed that the herpes simplex virus makes it difficult for men to produce sperm in his body, resulting in reduced sperm count. The presence of the herpes virus inside a sperm cell can cause difficulties for men to make his spouse pregnant. 

Thereby, it is worth noting that infertility due to STDs is an alarming condition only for those who develop chronic STD infections due to an ignorant attitude towards health. Proud Urology always suggests all the sexually active people take full advantage of its proper STD check-ups and lead a happy and healthy sexual life. 

HOW TO PREVENT INFERTILITY?

Following some basic quality health standards can keep you safe from the condition of infertility and help you maintain an overall healthy lifestyle. 

  1. Exercise Daily: Stay fit and healthy. Do yoga and exercise as a mandatory part of your daily schedule. 
  2. Quit Smoking: Do not smoke as it affected the ovulation cycle in women. The deteriorated health of the fetus due to smoking can increase the chances of infertility. 
  3. Quit Alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption leads to a decrease in fertility as alcohol affects the fetus’s health. For women planning to conceive a child must strictly quit alcohol consumption. 
  4. Stay at peace: Never stress your mind and heart with unnecessary thoughts as it can have serve effects on your pregnancy. 
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